University

Physics 1

Physics 1

Fall 2024

The following are items of interest from the news and other media, relavant to the class content. They are organized by textbook chapter.

- Ch 1: Units and Measurement
- Ch 2: Vectors
- Ch 3: One Dimensional Motion
- Ch 4: Motion in Two and Three Dimensions
- Ch 5: Newton’s Laws of Motion
- Ch 6: Applications of Newton’s Laws
- Ch 7: Work and Energy
- Ch 8: Potential Energy
- Ch 9: Momentum
- Ch 10: Fixed-Axis Rotation
- Ch 11: Angular Momentum
- Ch 12: Static Equilibrium
- Ch 13: Gravitation
- Ch 15: Oscillations
- Ch 16: Waves
- General Topics
- Playing Shockwave Flash

See also: Resources Page

- News
- Extreme Numbers Get New Names (Nov 2022) – General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) voted to introduce four new prefixes to the SI units on Nov 18: ronna (R) and quetta (Q) represent \(10^{27}\) and \(10^{30}\), and ronto (r) and quecto (q) signify \(10^{−27}\) and \(10^{−30}\). The Earth weighs around one ronnagram; an electron’s mass is about one quectogram.
- The Definition of a Kilogram Has Changed (Nov 2018) – It no longer depends on the mass of a physical object. Also changed were the kelvin, mole, and ampere. Watch the Veritasium video (10 min) on this.

- Videos
- High-tech mass measurements (15 min)
- bizarre units (19 min): parsecs, eV, snub, kerma (KE released per unit mass), and others
- example of dimensional analysis to predict free-fall time
- Atom Bombs and Dimensional Analysis (6 min)
- MIT Lecture 1: Units, Dimensions, Uncertainties, etc
- Powers of Ten (9 min) a classic from 1977

- Other Media
- June 2014: Radiolab (NY public radio) has a fun 20-min podcast on the SI units (click “Listen”).
*Pirates*may be why the U.S. doesn’t use the metric system (Washington Post, Sept 2017)

- Extras
- 2022
Reference on Constants, Units and Uncertainty
- This is data provided by the Physical Measurement Laboratory of the US National Institute of Standards and Technology.
- These numbers are recommended by the Committee on Data of the International Science Council (CODATA).
- Note for Python coders: these data are conveniently collected in
`scipy.constants`

- The Metric Program at NIST is working on bringing the metric system to the US

- 2022
Reference on Constants, Units and Uncertainty

- Extras
- Vector product examples in jupyter notebooks: html file – ipynb file
- The deeper meaning of vectors: Symmetry in Physics. Richard Feynman explains why vectors are so useful: because the laws of nature are symmetric with respect to translation and rotation.
- Vector chapter from Calculus

- Simulations
- Lecture Videos
- Kahn Academy: vector mathematics video lectures and exercises
- MIT Lecture 3: Vectors (50 min)

- Extras
- Kinematic Equations
- jerk, snap, crackle and pop: the higher derivatives of displacement
- bowling ball and feather drop (5 min) – Brian Cox visits the world’s biggest vacuum chamber
- hammer and feather drop on moon (1 min)

- Lecture videos
- Position (4:58) – Velocity (4:55) – Displacement (6:13) – Average Velocity (8:49) – Instantaneous Velocity (5:26) – Distance (5:53) – Speed (5:31) – Velocity Chart (6:51) – Acceleration Defined (4:23) – Acceleration Near Earth (11:03) – Acceleration - Using Calculus (6:58) – Acceleration - Using Graphs (6:31) – Accelerate for a Distance (5:24)

- Example Problems:
- Football Player Position & Velocity (5:41) – Thrown Chalk Acceleration I (3:30) – Thrown Chalk Acceleration II (4:25) – Meeting of the Band Nerds (6:49) – A Bass on a Spring (calculating distance, displacement) (3:49) – Walking to Class (average velocity problem) (8:07) – Velocity -vs- Time Graph (3:07) – Mass on Spring (average and instantaneous acceleration problem) (7:43) – Ping Pong Ball Drop (9:36) – Super Karate Monkey Death Car (7:25) – TIE test (4:22)

- Simulations
- 2D motion simulation – observe \(\vec a\) and \(\vec v\) vectors in action
- circular motion simulation

- Videos
- slip-n-slide projectile (it’s fake, but funny)
- frames of reference, classic video from 1960 demonstrating relative motion
- Trampoline on a Tractor – projectile motion with horizontal motion (gif)
- How is the Earth really moving? (20.5 min) – a discussion of Galilean relativity
- watch the Earth rotate - short animated gif

- Lecture videos
- MIT Lecture 4: 3D Kinematics, Free Falling Reference Frames (52 min)
- Tracking X-Y Motion (3:23) – Position Vector (6:47) – X-Y Motion 3 - Shoot (7:20) – X-Y Motion 4 - Shoot and Drop (7:57) – X-Y Motion 5 - Shoot and Drop Angles (6:14) – Kinematics Trajectories (4:59) – Hang Time, Range, and Height (6:26) – Intro Beer Pong (6:48) – Advanced Beer Pong (8:33) – Hunter and Monkey (10:14) – Uniform Circular Motion (11:30) – Periodic Circular Motion (3:30) – Angular Velocity (4:37) – Tangential and Radial Acceleration (5:15)

- Simulations:
- videos:
- ramp force puzzle (2.5 min) – ramp force hoax (2 min)
- fictitious forces in accelerating ref. frame (up to 21:30)

- Lecture videos
- Newton’s Laws 1 - The First Law (3:09) – Newton’s Laws 2 - The Second Law (3:21) – Normal Force (6:49) – Spring Force (7:12) – Tension Force (6:23) – Fictitious Force (3:58)

- Example problem videos
- Pushing Blocks (9:27) – More Pushing Blocks (7:16) – Dynamic Masses and Pulleys (5:53)

- videos:
- cd shattering at 170k FPS (gif)
- Coriolis force (3 min)

- Simulations:
- Lecture videos
- Friction Force (11:17) – Air Drag Force (10:52) – Liquid Drag Force I (3:07) – Liquid Drag Force II (12:26)

- Example problem videos
- More Pushing Blocks (7:16) – Dynamic Masses and Pulleys (5:53) – The Conical Pendulum (7:43) – Overhill and Underhill I (6:53) – Overhill and Underhill II (5:25)

- videos:
- MIT Lecture 11: Work, Kinetic & Potential Energy, Gravitation (49 min)
- Car engine power and gears
- A Bicycle-Powered House? (3.5 min)
- power from a gutter collecting rain (17 min)
- comparing springs in series and parallel (9.5 min) compared to Braess’s traffic paradox.

- Phet simulations:
- Lecture videos
- Work Kinetic Energy Theorem (4:33) – Negative Work (6:08) – Power (4:11) – Physics is Cruel (6:15) – Friction and Heat (6:10) – Internal Energy (7:58)

- Example problem videos
- Crossbow Energy (5:43)

- interactive swf figures: energy of projectile, energy of spring, force of spring

- Lecture videos – Conservative Forces (5:12) – Potential Energy (5:11) – Conservation of Mechanical Energy I (4:26) – Conservation of Mechanical Energy II (3:08) – Conservation of Mechanical Energy III (3:15) – Keeping Energy in the Loop (4:23) – Potential Energy of Springs (4:59) – Potential Energy Diagrams (10:03) force-potential energy relation
- Phet simulations:
- interactive swf figures: energy of projectile, energy of spring, force of spring
- videos:
- work, energy and power in a hockey slapshot
- Car engine power and gears
- kinetic energy storage mechanism for a xar
- A Bicycle-Powered House? (3.5 min)
- power from a gutter collecting rain (17 min)
- comparing springs in seriers and parallel (9.5 min) compared to Braess’s Paradox for traffic.

- Lecture videos – Three Ways To Do Mechanics (3:30) – Momentum and Newton’s Laws (5:21) – Impulse (6:26) – Collisions and Momentum (3:06) – Momentum Conservation Demo (3:59) – DEMO: Watermelon Drop (7:29) – Collisions and Energy (5:54) – Perfectly Inelastic Collisions (6:02) – Elastic Collisions I (7:11) – Elastic Collision II (11:29) – Center of Mass - Collisions (4:23) – Defining the Center of Mass (7:26) – Center of Mass of an Extended Object (6:15) – Center of Mass - Uniform Isosceles Triangle (9:35) – Walking the Plank I (8:36) – Walking the Plank II (5:15) – Beginner Rocketry (7:22) – Advanced Rocketry (7:32)
- MIT Lectures
- Phet simulation: collision lab
- videos:
- Scutaro line drive – an animated gif showning a baseball bat slowing down upon transferring momentum to a baseball
- Center of Mass puzzle and its solution
- workplace accident when the center of mass is not over a support (gif)
- Shuttle Discovery launch showing 20k lbs/sec burning to lift rocket
- tyranny of the rocket equation (12 min) discusses the small payload mass allowed by the rocket equation
- rocket ejecta mass visualized in elephants (gif) - Saturn V rocket
- Stacked Ball Drop (3.5 min)
- stick balancing (center of mass)

- Lecture videos – Rotational Motion Defined (6:53) – Steps to Rotational Motion (3:25) – Angular Displacement (5:15) – Angular Velocity and Acceleration (5:15) – Rotational Kinematics - Slowing a Bike Wheel (3:47) – Rotational Vector Directions (5:32) – Rotational Kinetic Energy (v2) (5:35) – Moment of Interia (4:21) – Calculating Moment of Intertia (4:52) – Moment of a Rod (7:05) – Moment of a Disk (8:38) – Moment of a Cylinder (5:04) – Moment of a Sphere (11:06) – Parallel Axis Theorem (3:55) – Torque Defined (4:28) – Calculating Torque (6:09) – Torque and Angle (9:00) – Torque - Rotating Disks (4:07) – Torque - Atwood Machine (10:33)
- MIT Lectures
- Phet simulations: Torque, ladybug revolution
- videos:
- the curious bahavior of rolling balls on turntables (9 min)
- moment of inertia demo: cute kids swinging sticks
- moment of inertia demo: rolling disks down a ramp, revealing what’s inside the disks
- Bizarre spinning toys (5 min)
- Visualization of Torques (6 min)

- Lecture videos – Rolling Cylinder (6:06) – Rolling Kinetic Energy (5:37) – Rolling with Gravity (10:55) – Rolling with Friction (7:26) – Driven Rolling (6:54) – Angular Momentum definition (6:39) – Conservation of Angular Momentum I (5:24) – Conservation of Angular Momentum II (2:17) – Precession I (8:18) – Precession II (5:54) – Gyroscope Precession I (10:27) – Gyroscope Precession II (6:16) – Torque on a Gyroscope (3:45)
- MIT Lectures
- videos:
- angular momentum conservation: how a cat lands on its feet
- what is angular momentum?: angular momentum of an object moving in a straight line is conserved
- figure skaters and L(openstax video)
- intermediate axis theorem
- intermediate axis theorem demo in space (gif)
- good explainer on why this works (15 min) including an explanation of why bodies such as planets and asteroids always spin about their axis of greatest inertia

- gyroscopes

- Lecture videos – Static Equilibrium (4:38) – Sign on a Building (7:50) – Helping a Friend Move (7:46) – Wheelchair Over a Curb (8:51) – The Moving Load (8:52) – Finding the Center of Mass (10:40) – Elastic Moduli (7:27) – Elastic Material Response (5:46) – How Not to Make a Spring (11:23)
- Phet simulation: Balancing Act (torque balancing)
- videos:
- Bicycle Pulling Puzzle difficult torque and rotation puzzle

- MIT Lectures

- Table of Astronomical Data
- Lecture videos – Universal Gravitational Force (6:04) – Earth-Moon Forces (5:15) – The Gravitational Field (6:22) – Gravity Near Earth (4:54) – Black Holes and Dark Matter (7:52) – Gravitational Potential and Path (5:19) – Gravitational Fields: Where is Zero? (4:50) – Gravitational Potential Energy (8:52) – Kepler’s Second Law (6:57) – Escape Velocity (5:53) – Kepler’s Third Law (3:49) – Tycho’s Moose and Kepler’s Ellipse (8:11)
- Phet simulations:
- interactive swf figures: elliptical geometry, elliptical orbits, Kepler’s 2nd Law, Universal Gravitation, rotation of a body
- videos:
- Why Gravity is NOT a Force (17 min) – great elucidation of General Relativity
- Moon shielding Earth from collision with space junk (gif), info on this video
- cd shattering at 170k FPS
- fictitious forces in accelerating ref. frame (up to 21:30)
- Coriolis force (3 min)
- vomit comet
- many-body gravitational attraction
- Feynman’s Lost Lecture (21.5 min) on why planets orbit in ellipses - a geometrical approach
- Newton’s three-body problem explained (5 min) – the three-body problem is chaotic

- interactive simulations:
- Relativistic Space Sheep: fictitious forces in space
- jumping on Earth vs jumping on the moon (gif)
- tides on earth (flash)

- images:
- Supplemental Theory
- A projectile in a uniform gravity field follows a parabolic path. But according to Kepler’s First Law the projectile is actually orbiting the center of the Earth in an ellipse. You can show that these curves are the same with a little algebra.
- Mass distributed in a spherical shell produces the exact same gravity field as a point mass for radii outside the shell; and it produces zero gravity everywhere throughout the interior of the shell. This can be proved by integrating over the mass shell. The same result can be seen by geometric arguments (9min).

- Lecture videos – SHM 1 - Kinematics (6:04) – SHM 2 - Oscillator Equation of Motion (4:30) – SHM 3 - Secret Mathematical Method (6:07) – SHM 4 - Oscillator Solution (4:31) – SHM 5 - Initial Conditions Example (3:58) – SHM 6 - Natural Frequency Demo (2:16) – SHM 7 - The Oscillator Equation (1:33)
- Other Lecture videos
- In these videos, Hafner shows how simple harmonic motion can be used to model more complicated, real situations. It’s a great introduction to differential equations. – Nonlinear EOM (4:40) – Taylor Series Expansion (8:12) – Spring of Air Equation (6:48) – Spring of Air Equilibrium (4:01) – Spring of Air Linearization (4:52) – Field Trip (2:44)
- Earl Haig video lecture on resonance

- PhET simulations: – Masses and Springs – Pendulum Lab
- interactive swf figures – spring force (swf) – energy of a spring (swf) – position graph for harmonic motion (swf) – circular motion (swf) – amplitude independance (swf) – trig functions (swf) – energy of a pendulum (swf) – damped oscillator (swf)
- videos:
- The Surprising Secret of Synchronization (21 min) – Veratasium
- Finding the Center of Percussion of a baseball bat (1.5 min)
- natural vibration of objects to model motion (start at 13:17) TED talk
- swaying of the millenium bridge in London (1 min)
- car suspension (animated gif)

- articles:
- moth wings have scales that resonate at frequencies that bat use to echolocate, making them ‘stealth’ (published paper)

- PhET simulations:
- interactive figures:
- traveling wave (swf)
- wavelength and frequency (swf)
- superposition & standing waves (swf)
- pulse reflection (swf)
- standing wave (swf)

- tracking ocean waves describes the origin of ocean swells and the amazing distances they travel
- videos:

- The Mechanical Universe – A 1985 television series with 56 half-hour episodes covering first-year Physics. The videos make heavy use of historical dramatizations and visual aids to explain physics concepts. More informtion and episode descriptions at the wikipedia page.

Shockwave Flash (swf) files are no longer playable in modern browsers, due to security problems. You may use the swf files above by saving them, then visiting Ruffle.rs and dragging the swf file into the window there.

*Last modified: November 07, 2024*